The Japan CSO Coalition (JCC2015) and its membership, as experienced implementors of the current Hyogo Framework for Action and future implementors of the Post-2015 Framework for DRR, offer the following points to the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction.
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- Technical Hazards and Risks
- Our focus is on Nuclear Hazards and Risks
The indication that the framework both reflects natural and human induced disasters is a positive sign for JCC2015. More is required to connect nuclear disasters (such as the one in Fukushima 2011 or Chernobyl 1986) with the internationally recognised DRR framework, and advocate for the need to enhance risk identification and addressing such risk factors that exist or are emerging in many countries.
- Implementation Toolkits – The Fukushima Booklet
JCC2015 is committed to producing and distributing a guideline bookletof what actually happened in Fukushima from civil society’s perspective, and how various communities can assess, monitor and reduce future risk imposed by nuclear power plants. Monitoring mechanisms and periodic assessments can be a useful tool to track progress and JCC2015 commits to contribute by adding in nuclear safety indicators/assessment checklists.
- A holistic approach to technologies
There is no dispute that there is a need to “enhance access to, and transfer of, environmentally sound technology, science and innovation”. JCC2015 does, however, strongly advocate a more holistic review process for assessing the environmental soundness of technologies. For example, if only levels of CO2 output are considered for power production, other important environmental considerations, such as waste and risk/result of accidents, may be neglected.
- Multi-hazard management of disaster risk and Cascading Disasters
- Cascading Disasters and the interconnectedness of hazards and risks
JCC2015 believes there is a need to address the cascading disaster concept of how one hazard directly causes another disaster then in some cases, another. (For example, the Great East Japan Earthquake caused a massive tsunami; which directly led to power and cooling failure at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant; which led to a radiation disaster). JCC2015 applauds the addition of the aim to guide multi-hazard management as it also addresses the issue of how interconnected hazards and risks are and the difficulty in managing that.
- Role of stakeholders
JCC2015 strongly agrees with the inclusion of the “Role of Stakeholders” section and would like to work with all stakeholders to clarify and strengthen these roles.
- Citizens as scientists and managers
In addition to ‘scientific’ and ‘research’ institutions, community members as individuals and grassroots organisations can provide empirical studies on risk assessments. For example, residents from Fukushima know exactly what went wrong, organised to monitor and record radiation levels in their communities. This social science type of learning, where citizens act as scientists (not just data collection assistants) should also be prioritised in regional/global cross-learning efforts.
An inclusive all-of-society approach that pre-assigns strategic roles to civil society needs strengthening and inclusion into all phases of assessing, planning, monitoring, responding and recovering.
- Community leadership, especially women’s leadership
Communities that have strong all-inclusive community leadership are essential in achieving the goals and priorities of Post-2015 Framework for DRR and building resilience. Further guidance is required on how this leadership can be further strengthened and developed in a systematic way that creates empowerment and ownership of DRR policies at the community level which includes women’s leadership.
Living without the fear and danger of being affected by disasters and their effects is one essential component of human security. As a guiding principle, greater emphasis is required in ensuring the transparency of risk assessment formation and its timely disclosure. Targets are needed to increase the number of nations that have laws to ensure transparency in, and the disclosure of, disaster risk information. This, combined with national laws to prevent and ensure accountability for risk creation, is essential.
- Accountable monitoring
It has been well established that the global community and nations must counteract existing risks and hazards, and also prevent new risks and hazards from developing. Civil society and the community is in a special position to understand the existing risks and new risks that may emerge so it is therefore essential to involve civil society and the community in the monitoring of risks and hazards. Clear instructions are needed on how, how often, and by who the review of progress will be conducted, which ultimately ensures that there are no weak links between the target, priorities, roles of stakeholders and actual implementation.Monitoring mechanisms and periodic assessments can be a useful tool to track progress if accountable systems are in place.
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